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Coal Analysis and Coal Analysis Devices

Coal is a sedimentary rock that has been among the fossil fuels used in industry for hundreds of years and has economic value. Although coal consists mostly of carbon, it contains varying amounts of different elements (mainly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen). Coal containing free or compound carbon is one of the most preferred energy sources thanks to its widespread availability in the world, ease of transportation, convenience of storage facilities, reliability of use, low cost compared to other fossil fuels, and similar features.

What are the Coal Analyses?

In areas where coal is used, certain quality standards must be met. At the same time, for some applications, the physical properties of coal may need to be analyzed, so it is passed through certain tests before it is used. Tests and applications applied to coal are determined by international standard organizations (ASTM, ISO, DIN…).

The main analyzes and tests on coal are:

  • Ash Melting Analysis: Determines how coal ash will behave when heated in an industrial furnace or boiler.

  • Ash Content Analysis: Determines the amount of non-combustible material in a coal sample.

  • Calorific Value Analysis: Calorimeter determines the quality of the coal by measuring the calorific value. It is measured using bomb calorimeter, also known as coal calorific value analyzer.

  • Fixed Carbon Analysis: Determines the amount of non-volatile carbon remaining in a coal sample after combustion.

  • Float-Immersion Test: Determines the relative amount of coal that can be separated from the bound rock and minerals.

  • Hardgrove Grindability Index: Determines the ease of crushing of coal.

  • Analysis of major and minor elements by X-Ray fluorescence: Determines the elemental composition of coal and coal ash.

  • Petrographic Analysis: Examines the microscopic components of coal.

  • Proximate Analysis: Determines moisture, volatile matter, ash yield and fixed (relative) carbon content in coal.

  • Sulfur Forms: Identify different types of sulfur in coal.

  • Trace Element Analysis: Determines the elemental composition of coal and coal ash.

  • Ultimate Analysis: Determines the amount of the main elements in the coal sample, namely carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen.

As Debye Technic, we produce the coal analyzer (bomb calorimeter) required for you to perform the calorific value analysis from the coal analyzes mentioned above. In addition, we provide consultancy and support for other coal analysis devices. You can contact us to set up the coal analysis system you need.

​How to Measure the Healing Value of Coal?

Bomb calorimeter is a laboratory device used for calorific value analysis of solid and liquid combustible materials. The calorific value of combustible materials such as coal can also be measured using a bomb calorimeter from coal analysis devices. The calorific value calculated with the calorimeter is used for determining the value of the coal and for quality control processes.

You can visit our isoperibol calorimeter page to get information about bomb calorimeter. At the same time, you can contact us for detailed information about the bomb calorimeter and coal calorie analysis!

How is Thermal Value Analysis Performed?

To measure the calorific value of the coal, a certain amount of coal sample is placed in the decomposition vessel of the bomb calorimeter. Vessel is placed in a water-filled analysis chamber. By burning the coal sample, heat is generated in the vessel (bomb) and the water surrounding the chamber is heated. The calorific value of the coal is determined by measuring the difference between the initial temperature of the water and the temperature of the water after heating and the calculations made. This value is the upper (gross) calorific value of the coal. The heating value of coal is also affected by many parameters such as the amount of hydrogen, ash, moisture, and volatile content, in addition to the oxygen and carbon it contains. These parameters affect the net calorific value of coal.

What is the Upper (Gross) Calorific Value?

It is the energy value released as a result of the complete combustion of the coal sample with the bomb calorimeter. When calculating the upper calorific value, a verification calculation should be made regarding the nitric acid, sulfur amount, ignition wire energy and catalyst energy released during the combustion process during the analysis. The effect of other elements in the coal does not affect the gross calorific value and is not used in its calculation. Since the effect of other parameters measured with coal analyzers does not affect the upper calorific value, the upper calorific value is always higher than the lower calorific value in the calculations made on the same basis.

What is Lower (Net) Calorific Value?

It is the energy value when the water in its content turns into steam completely as a result of the complete combustion of the coal sample. While calculating the lower calorific value of coal; It is necessary to know the mass ratio of total moisture, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. These ratios in the coal content are analyzed using different coal analyzers and are included in the calculation after the bomb calorimeter is burned. By using the Calorimeter IC210 interface we have developed, you can easily calculate and recalculate net calories as specified in international standards. For detailed information on calculation, you can read our blog post "Recalculation Application and Its Importance in Thermal Value Analysis" or contact us.

For more information, we recommend you review our application note "Calculation of Upper and Lower Calorie Value of Coal Sample". You can contact us to access coal analysis and more application notes.


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